Nazca  Monkey & the Seal of Atlantis

M
anifest order in the monkey figure.

 This study uses a copy of the Nazca monkey originally published by Maria Reiche, Nazca's scholarly guardian angel. She had learned about the giant figure on the pampa from commercial pilots in 1952, some years after her arrival to Nazca. It became her favorite figure, and she ascribed it special significance, therefore, her measurements of it should be especially meticulous:  "The monkey and surroundings would be an appropriate subject for a special study, as it is a complete unit and the pursuit of each line to its origin does not, as at the border of the pampa, lead unendingly from one thing to another."  Unfortunately, Reiche never did carry out that special study.. Anyway, it looks like my present copy is sufficiently accurate in preserving major aspects of the design. Still, I'd  love to have a highly accurate plan of the monkey, one which would map even line-edges, and moreover, be a part of an accurate survey of the entire Nazca. Monkey's Orientation _ Standing Tall Even a cursory inspection of the monkey glyph reveals evidence that these are no random scribbles, but a measured effort. In the diagram above, two long straight lines form a big X-shape; one of the two red lines is the vertical axis of symmetry of this X.   The other red line I drew from the basis of the tail to be perpendicular to the vertical axis. This line then shows, as well, an impressive horizontal alignment with the basis of the hands, and the tops of the sixteen lines forming a zig-zag on the right. In another detail, the vertical axis passes right between the monkey's feet. Evidently, this is one compellingly reasonable orientation for the monkey.  I believe that Maria Reiche would have noted this particular alignment.After all we are working with her copy of the desert glyph; this alignment stands out strongly, and she had taught mathematics in Germany. Nevertheless, there is another, and just as strong, alignment _  to the cardinal points. The postures of the monkey in these two alignments look somehow imposing and dignified; later , we learn that the monkey is actually performing a highly intelligent geometrical pantomime. The current paradigm which has the monkey tumbling on all fours is totally wrong!  Science-Art For the most part, the two lines forming the big X hold the angle of visually perfect 36°; it could be two opposed tips of 5-pointed stars touching. Hence the big X will fit into a circle ten times even. Any line of any X will fall on the neighbouring X's line. This idea results in the below remarkable chain of ten monkeys. The tail spirals around the head, and hands grip torsos with much feeling for the position; the effect bespeaks genuine artistry.  It's clear that I'm not the author of this amazing scene; I'm just the lucky finder.

 The Big X

 The big X shows two tips of 5-pointed stars in a tip-to-tip alignment. The question is: what size are those stars? The pentagram below the X-point  The second longest line of the glyph - c - cuts across the extended line "a". Let this cut set the size of the experimental star below the X-point. The stars above the X-point result from mirroring the first star (below). The star inside the big star is remarkable in how well it's centered over the monkey.

!

 the big 5-pointed star above the X-point We base a second experimental star on the length of line 'a' above the point-X, but 'a' ends in a curve, leaving two basic choices for its length:  The first choice is set by a circle from the X-point touching the end of line a; the second one is unfolding the curve in which 'a' ends.            Two Methods _ Identical Results The correct choice must be the one that corroborates the size of the star set by the previous method (by line-c). It's unfurling the curve. Then the (purple) 5-pointed star based on that unfolded length has an inner star which is identical to the corresponding stars derived by the other method (line c cutting off line a).

 If we set the size of the big pentagram from 'a' without straightening the curve, in which 'a' ends, and superpose the result over the previous one, it looks like the diagram above. The Φ relationship holds in this position, as well, but there is some tiny separation at the top. While the top of 'a' is ambiguous, the cut of line 'a' by line 'c' is straightforward. So, let it set the star's size. It will be the standard for the remainder of this study. There are two basic stars which fit the set size; one points up, the other one down. The other star is shown in purple color below; it has a cone whose sides run parallel to the original cone here. Whereas the yellow star's tips are away from the monkey's body, four of the purple star's tips are much closer and actually point to the monkey's head, the hands, the feet, and the tail.

 the 60° Grill - the Other X-tree

 The sixteen roughly parallel lines, forming a grill-like pattern on the bottom right of the glyph, average out to 60° with the long line crossing the grill near its midle. Of those sixteen lines, fully a half comes very close to the perfect 60°  with the line crossing them.  If completed into a system of equilateral triangles as in the diagram below, an extensive geometric harmony is established between that system and the system of 5-pointed stars. This harmony really catches the eye because of how good it looks at this magnification, leaving no doubt about being planned; unfortunately, when you zoom in, it becomes sort of rough. That makes it tough to figure out geometrically from the primary star, like I did with other elements of the monkey. But the solution is there for us to find, and one day, I, or someone else, will find it.

 Another visual proof that the angle of the Big X is 36° Let's array the upper part of the Big X, (including the monkey) five times around the center of the Monkey-star. Supposing we didn't know what the angle was, the result would seem strange - Five times two lines (of the Big-X) equals ten lines, but we only see five lines (one 5-pointed star). That means lines overlap two at a time, so the angle of the cone must be 36°. Judging by the way the five monkeys entwine, the centre of the Monkey Staris the right pivotal point, indeed. So,  the idea repeats - we get another chain of monkeys. But quite in contrast to the other chain which has rather comical overtones, this rendition appears sinister. The hands, the feet, and the heads all meet in one spot. For instance, at the top right of the image, the green feet press the light brown tail against the purple head, which is held by the blue hands, one of which is pushed into the head by the dark brown tail.

 The Monkey's Head, Hands, and Feet Standardize on the Monkey-star's Inner-circle    They fit very accurately within the X-star's inner-circle. However, the head does so in its own way. Instead of fitting the circle, it fits the pentagon inscribed into the inner-circle (see below). Remarkably, in my CAD drawing of the monkey, the inner-circle fits both the hands and the feet to within three millimeters on each side, fluke or not. We can reconstruct these circles, too. The method is given in the Appendix.   What we see here is exactly the same as what we saw in the Athena-engraving from La Marche _ the design uses standard circles set by a 5-pointed star. It's one of several elements shared between Nazca and La Marche, so far: sophisticated geometry dominating seemingly naive art, using a cone to indicate presence of a 5-pointed star, and now _  using the same standard circles for major construction.  The inner-circle is one of the standard circles (Triplets) of the Athena-engraving.

For  reconstruction of the circles go down to the addendum.

 Observation of stunning parallels between the monkey and the engraving from the very outset was very thought-provoking. Were the two works directly related? That would be really fantastic, but was so far unproven. It is possible, although highly unlikely to arrive at the same specific concept of the 5-pointed star _  and reduced to a cone with clues to the parent star _ use it in art. After all, the concept itself is based in reality, easily observable, interesting to a mathematician, and esthetic to an artist.  To establish beyond doubt a direct connection between these works, so remote from each other in time and space, the monkey's concept would have to be enriched by the other half of the geometrical basis of the Athena-engraving - the Square. The "Cone & Square" concept is sufficiently unique to make accidental duplication practically impossible. And so I addded the Square to the Cone. See the two diagrams of the experiment below. In the first one, the peach colored diamond is the Square, as set by the blue Cone. In the second one, the Square is yellow.

## The Square's diagonals are oriented to the cardinal points!

 With The Square and its diagonals in, it is plainly seen that the monkey is also oriented to the Square. It even signals a square with its arms! That square's sides are parallel to the Square's diagonals. All four corners of the Square are meaningfully placed with respect to the monkey's body. The lower three corners are anchored in the monkey's spine,a  knee, and a finger. The top corner appears to be on the horizontal line, which limits the tops of the head, the left ear, and left elbow. The Square's y-axis tunnels down the upper right arm while the vertical line from the left corner of the Square tunnels down the spine. The horizontal line from its bottom corner tunnels through one of the monkey's thighs. This layout is orderly and therefore looks fully deliberate I was encouraged by these initial results even without any knowledge of the Square's orientation to the cardinal points. That was one of the pleasant surprises still to come, but the time to mention it is now.

The Monkey-frame

 To see the monkey’s layout with respect to the cardinal points, we simply enclose it by East-West oriented lines, as in the above image. This gives us the Monkey-frame. Its sides are parallel with the x,y-axes of the Square. To this frame, we add central axes. With the axes in, we can see that: • the monkey’s vertical spine divides the monkey in half neatly along the East-West axis • the lower right forearm divides the frame into southern and northern halves Conclusion The Monkey-frame’s axes are two ‘great divides’ which clearly govern the monkey’s layout . More Frames If we pay attention to the monkey's body-language, we see that its arms signal a square (Arms-square). Indeed, a vertical line through the outside of the upper right arm completes a perfect square (the Arms-square) in combination with two sides of the Monkey Frame, and its horizontal axis: •  width of the arms (East-West) = half the monkey's height •  width of the feet  (East-West)   = half the width of the arms =  one-fourth of the monkey's height. • width of the left foot (East-West) = half the width of the feet =  one-eighth of the monkey's height The horizontal line at one-fourth height of the Monkey-frame marks out a square with the vertical lines bounding the feet, and with the bottom line of the Monkey-frame. This is the Foot-square.  • the tip of the tail is at the three-eights height level of the Monkey-frame, and  one-fourth of the height away from the left side of the Monkey-frame.  Below:  Other squares fit the monkey as well. The big blue square limits the arms, hands, and left ear from three directions. The line of the southern-most points of the left ear and the left elbow runs East-West perfectly. The south-east corner of the blue square is then anchored on the line of the head.  Also, the line of the head followed counter clock-wise reaches the eastern side of this square and turns back eastwards.

 More order in the orientation of the monkey to the cardinal directions : Measured by my CAD program, the width of the four fingers on the left hand equals, for practical purposes, the height of the right hand.                                height of the right hand = 10.04244144                                   width of the left hand = 10.02699519    radius of the Monkey-star's inner circle = 10.04057079 The height of the right hand differs from the radius of the inner-circle by less than 2 millimeters! Both hands offer powerful hints that the inner-circle of the Monkey-star belongs here. They justify my earlier decision ti draw the Hand-circle there,  The Big Clue The top right corner of the Foot-square connects to the top and bottom corners of the Square by lines closely approximating angles found on a regular 5-pointed star. I took it as a clear indication that a star should be drawn here.   So I extended the line through B and C to where it met the Square's horizontal diagonal. Then I mirrored the lines A _ B, and B _ C across the Square's vertical axis. The result was a really great looking facsimile of a 5-pointed star. This was the first star you see below. And then I drew the second star you see below in the same place. This latter star is exact, however. It's also drawn from the top of the Square, and the horizontal diagonal of the Square serves as one of the star's arms.

 The two stars are so close to being identical that they pass for a single star when seen like this. Don't they? I bet you weren't thinking two stars when first seeing this image. While drawing the regular star, I saw that the instrumental 'golden-circle', centered in the bottom corner of the Square, seemed as big as the circle drawn around the Foot-square. On the right of the diagram, the two circles are drawn from the same point, and they do look like a single circle. Their radii differ by mere 2 centimeters in my CAD.dwg of the monkey -  virtually nothing on the scale shown. Why did the ancients set up the above diagram?  What is so special about the above construction?  (Just a reminder: in the actual construction we deal with a circle instead of a square; the square was inscribed into the circle later) I surmised, correctly, as it turned out, that it was probably the most efficient, the quickest construction of a regular 5-pointed star by straight-edge and compasses in this Universe _  the underlying raison d’ętre for the Foot-square - to clue us in. What was my reason for such thinking? _  In the actual construction, the very first step taken is drawing a horizontal line, but that line also becomes the horizontal arm of the star under construction _ a step is saved.

Euclidean construction of the regular 5-pointed star (pentagram) in 13 steps

 The diagram above shows the first six steps. Step-1 is a horizontal line, and already an arm of the sought after star.  Next, we center circle-2 anywhere on this horizontal. Circle-3 is centered at the intersection of circle-2 with the line. Steps 4 & 5 are help circles, which give us the vertical line as step-6.  The circle-3 now has been given both horizontal and vertical axes. Construction of the 36-degree angle step 7:  Draw a line between points C and 2.   step 8:  Draw a circle centered in 'C' through the intersection of circle-2 with the new line. steps 9&10:  Draw lines from the top of circle-3 through points P1 and P2, which are the intersections of circle 'C' (cyan) with circle-3 (green). These lines are tangents to circle 'C', and the angle betwen them is exactly 36 degrees. They form two more arms of our 5-pointed star. Construction of the regular 5-pointed star _ steps 11,12,13:
 The points 1 and 2 are there from the previous diagram. Now it can be seen that a circle from the point C, through 1 and 2, shall be equidistant to the points 3 and 4. In the last two steps, draw lines from 3 and 4 through C to meet the horizontal line from step 1, and the pentagram is complete.

 alternatives for steps 11,12,13: Since the horizontal line will serve as one arm of the star,  the point 'Q' circled in green will be equidistant to points numbered 1, 2, 3,  needed to complete the star (Q could be on the other side as well). The Trans-Atlantic Connection & the Foot-square The Foot-square theme, which brings up the idea of the fastest pentagram construction, seems to be the culmination of monkey's geometry. Not forgetting that the evident success of my analysis depended on acccepting that the monkey's geometry was a plagiary of the Athena-engraving's basic geometric system, I had to wonder if the plagiary extends to the Foot-circle. Did my analysis of the engraving simply miss it? If so, it would constitute more compelling evidence of the direct connection between the two.                                                                                                                                                                  * Does the transatlantic connection continue? Is the theme of the Foot-square clearly present in the engraving?                                                                                     The Athena-engraving already has its Square; we just add the 13-Step star & the Foot-square elements to the template From the four orientations available on the Square, we choose the one towards Athena's lower body. By the way, unlike the barefoot Nazca-monkey, Athena wears boots. See the result image below. The circle around the Foot-square (the Square's own Golden-circle) clearly looks like a custom-designed frame for Athena's entire right leg below the knee. The Foot-square and the smaller squares inscribed within it also seem custom-designed as each line we see provides some important information about location and extent of engraved lines. For instance, the bottom line of the square does exactly the same thing as in the monkey glyph - it limits the feet from below with extreme accuracy. Do I hear the objection that at Nazca this square covered both feet entirely? This seems to be a valid objection taken into account by the original designers themselves, for they expand the Nazcan idea into a system of two Foot-squares, one on each foot. For good measure, this square also fits Athena's head (see below).   Moreover, one line of a smaller square goes on to set an accurate limit downwards for an end-point on the toe of Athena's left boot. This is a harbinger of the things to come. Elements of the 13-Step star also fit the engraving nicely. Athena actually seems to sit in the rectagle whose sides and bottom are set by this star. The rectangle's height above the Square is equal to one half of the Square's diagonal, and it sets the exact upper limit for the white space in Athena's helmet. The midpoint of the rectagle's at the top is also as accurately as can be at the very outer edge of the engraved line there; so the Square with its products visibly controls the engraving's layout in this orientation.   Below, we have a close-up of the situation at the top of Athena's helmet.  For example, the (green) top line of the frame is microscopically accurate as the top limit for white space in Athena's head. The end of the blue line, one-half the height of the square's diagonal above the Square, is also positioned on the very edge of the engraved line, again with microscopical accuracy, but this time on the outside of the line. And, the midpoint of the Foot-square fitted over Athena's head is also at the very edge of the engraved line.  This is also microscopically accurate. This type of exact fit reoccurs throughout our analysis; it showcases the engraving's quality.

 The other Foot-square I also tried moving the Foot-square over Athena's other foot just by eye, to see how it fits there, if at all. The result, seen below, was encouraging: The total width of the left boot, including what looks like a stirrup, is equalled by the width of the Foot-square! The line through the left side of this square fits with the engraved lines in the area especially well. And the extended right lower side of the inscribed square is a perfect boundary to all three toes of Athena's right boot. Three toes? Well, yes, just like the Nazca monkey! As a rule, neither monkeys nor humans are three-toed; this further coincidence is a welcome correlation, which strengthens the case. Since I had found three major correlations for the Foot-square: one on each foot, and one on the head; along with the previously discovered material, it was enough confirmation for the hypothesis, I had thought.  The experiment was an undisputable success.         Following the script It took me two decades to return to these Foot-square phenomena in Athena to look for a way to duplicate them by construction. What was next in the Ancients' script? Well, the Foot-square is insribed in a circle, whose primary function is construction of a 5-pointed star; so it's only natural to inscribe the circle with such a star as well. We can choose from the four orientations of the Square.             The Monkey-tree Lines of the engraving concurrent with lines a & c create a virtual column. Lines a & b, and b & c create cones. In the case of b & c, it's actually two 36-degree cones oriented tip to tip on the same long axis. This is a deja vu of the Nazca-monkey's X-Tree! Therefore, I call it Monkey-tree. All three lines, a&b&c, are well supported by the engraved picture;  the arrows point to such places. The picture below zooms in onto the details. The Monkey-tree fits tips of two 5-pointed stars. Like with the X-Tree of the Nazca-monky, we have to find the correct size for these stars. When we inscribe a pentagon into the circle around the Foot-square, one of its sides  coincides with the Monkey-tree. Accordingly, the stars have sides equal in length to the sides of this pentagon.                           Now there is an entire system of lines which help in the projection of more stars onto the area. As we see, these projections help us to map the engraving. Lines a,b,c,d,f all express the flow of lines and points in the engraving. I find the harmony among all these elements very obvious, and I hope that so does a telling majority of readers.

 For example, the small yellow star in the graphic above is part of the star occupying the lower half of the Monkey-tree. Vertical lines y & z drawn down from points on this star are absolutely precise limits horizontally for the engraved line at the front of Athena's right boot. The line x is just as perfect a boundary set by the bigger star; it limits the white space on the lower foot in this direction. And finally, the distance between lines w & z equals a side of the square inscribed into the Foot-square. An arrow points to where this line acts as a boundary for an engraved element.  These boundaries can be called exact because the error is so small that measuring it becomes impossible while working with a paper copy rather than the original. The "tif" file, serving as the background in my CAD drawing, has a grey band of uncertainty at line edges under the highest resolution. The thickness of this band is roughly one or two hundredths of a millimeter, or ten to twenty microns.

 Above: The small green circle marks a point where star lines associated with the Monkey-tree system intersect at the edge of an engraved line. It seems to coincide closely with the insertion point for the other Foot-square from one of the images above. And indeed, just like before, a line drawn down at 45-degrees from this point then serves as the boundary to the three toes of Athena's right boot.

 Therefore we insert the Foot-square from this point, and the result is above. The system lines in the image tell us a lot about the positioning of engraved elements.
 Athena's head & the Foot-square Below: I was also able to derive the exact position of the Foot-square fitting over Athena's helmeted head. The circled point is at the intersection of a side of the 13-Step star with another line. This other line only becomes available when we feed Petrie's ground plan of the three big pyramids (their sides are averaged) of Giza into what I see as its predetermined position in the Athena-engraving; it's the line through the Great Pyramid's western side. This circled point is on the central axis of the Foot-square.  I already knew the square's elevation from before _ its bottom side passes through two points of the small star (which is a part of a larger star whose height is one half the square's diagonal).

 The vertical distance from the bottom of the chin to the top of the head is about 4.5 centimeters. It probably is a lot more than that on your screen, I hope, for the sake of having a good view of the accuracies. the same square expanded into a golden rectangle

 The bottom line of the golden rectangle nestles perfectly atop an engraved area  (arrow). The top of the head to the face                   1 / Φ  = 0.618..  is as the face is to the entire head     Φ / (Φ+1)  = 0.618.. Overall, the height of the head is Phi + 1  ( 2.618..), and its width is 1 + 1.  The whole rectangle equals two squared shoulder to shoulder vertical golden rectangles

 The top corner of the Square (diamond) is situated on Athena's face. Therefore I wanted to see what the golden circle (of the Square) would do when centered in this corner and inscribed with a pentagram, and a Foot-square.  I looked at four pentagrams, each oriented to a different point of the axial cross. The star shown below was the one most interesting result.

 Line "a" is the vertical side of this pentagram rotated 90 degrees around the circle's center. It's included because it's a perfect boundary from below for Athena's helmet (or whatever else it may be). An arrow points to the lowest point on the helmet. The other arrows do the same thing. They bring our attention to more such strategic points.  For instance, line "x" is a horizontal line through an inside corner of the star and sets a perfect boundary for the face from below. You can see just how perfect it is in the close-up below. Keep in mind that in lifesize, the engraved line is just 1.2 millimeters thick.

 The upper tip of the star is at the top of Athena's forehead, which, in lifesize, only protrudes through the star's outer circle by 0.02 mm.  That's three to four times thinner than average thickness of a human hair. The star lines fan out from this point in accord with the flow of the engraved lines there. The aesthetic effect is quite startling. The small circle centered in the same tip proves the existence of yet more exact order in this location. See the arrows in the diagram below.

 The arrows point to more perfect boundaries; three white areas reach exactly to the circle. It would be naive to assume that such microscopic precision is accidental.
 The Seal of Atlantis The Peruvian "Nazca Monkey" is identical to the 14,000 years old "Athena" engraving from La Marche, France in that both images are instances of the same geometric engine, the Cone & Square. Using this engine, we have just successfully completed a round trip from the Athena-engraving to the Nazca-monkey and back.   The Nazca-monkey accentuates the Cone element, and so it was easy to see at a glance. But the impulse to look for it came from La Marche, where it was really hard to discover. The monkey gives practically no clue to the Square. The impulse to check out the the monkey for the Square came from the engraving, as well. However, once we add it into the position, its becomes perfectly evident that the Square already was there in spirit. I saw the monkey as heaven sent help in proving the presence of the Cone & Square on both sites. As long as there was just the engraving, the Cone & Square system was unanimously credited to my (vivid) imagination . The Nazca Monkey's intervention decides this issue of authorship in favor of the ancient agency. The monkey also taught me something new - the "13-step" method of pentagram construction from the episode of the Foot-square. I had not noticed it in the engraving, but I saw it as the culmination of my analysis of the monkey glyph. Since there was a flow of ideas from La Marche, France to Nazca, Peru, an experiment was in order to test the flow going the other way, too. The monkey suggests experimenting with the Foot-square idea in the engraving. Performing the experiment then rewards us with in-depth treatment of the theme in Athena. You have just witnessed the fact. The experiment was successful; the hypothesis was borne out.                                                                                   * Imagine my bewilderment at discovering, many years later, that the "13-step" method of pentagram construction makes possible an exact reconstruction of the ground plan of the three great pyramids of Giza, as surveyed by Petrie!  In turn, that fact called for testing both Athena and the monkey for the presence of the ground plan of Giza. And again, this backchecking brought highly positive results, as you will see.

Appendix

 • Reconstruction of the Circles around the Head, Hands, and the Feet  • Reconstruction of the Monkey Frame

.

 Reconstruction of the Head, Hands, and Feet Circles Despite fitting the original Head-Hand-Foot circles to the image by eye, at first - their positioning with regard to thhe Monkey-star turned out easy to define in simple geometrical terms resulting in a neat blueprint - another key to the monkey's reconstruction.  Hand-circle's Exact Coordinates First coordinate: Its center is on the vertical line b1, which emanates from the Monkey-star's tip just above (it is a major line in the star's grid). Second coordinate: Pentagon No. 2 in these diagrams is a direct projection of the inner pentagon of the Monkey Star. Its rotation about the star's center describes a circle, which is tangential to the Hand-circle (magnified view below). This solves the second coordinate for Hand-circle's reconstruction.  At this point, we can reconstruct the Hand-circle, and the line-1, which is the laser-like line of sight from the center of the Monkey Star through a pointlike aperture between the hands. We can also reconstruct line 3. Foot-circle's Exact Coordinates First coordinate of the Foot Circle: This idea is straightforward. Line-3 originates at the same point, at which Line-1 exits the Hand-circle. It is a tangent to the top of the Foot-circle, giving us its elevation.

Second coordinate of the Foot-circle:
The pentagon we see inscribed into the Foot-circle is a direct projection of Pentagon No. 2 downwards and parallel to line "b".
Two coordinates give us the Foot circle. The star lines we see within it then give a number of important parameters on the feet. For instance, we see the extent of the small toe on the left foot given in the diagram. The left foot is indicated by its high arching instep, an adaptation for upright posture and fast running.
Special Effect
Two distances involved measure 17.9999.. X-Star meters - almost a perfectly round value: These are the distances of the centers of both the Foot-circle and the Monkey Star to the nearest corner of the other circle's pentagon.

First coordinate of the Head Circle
A line from the Head Circle's center perpendicular to Line-1 is a tangent to the inner Monkey Star circle. And the line drawn from the center of the Monkey Star as a tangent to the Head Circle will be perpendicular to Line-1.
It is given by the Square, not seen in the diagram above. It involves a major line of the Square's grid (through the 1/4 point of its y-diagonal.
*
The distance between the centers of the Head-circle and the Cone's Key-circle ( see the "seat1.htm" for details on the Cone)  is also very interesting

11.777,777,67... X-Star meters.

Reconstruction of the Monkey Frame

 The Golden Triangle The triangle inscribed into the rectangle in the diagram above is a pretty good facsimile of the Golden Triangle. The angle at its tip is 35.8 degrees, i.e., it is very close to being like any of the five yellow triangles on the inscribed pentagram in the above image. The scale model of this situation is very reproducible from memory This is the second such scale model we have for the monkey.

 The idea seems to be that the Monkey Frame's intended height should equal the  Foot-square's perimeter.  (4x one side of the square inscribed into the Golden Circle)  The idea is easy to reproduce (see above), because we know the position of the Foot Square. We get the southern and northern lines of the Monkey Frame, plus the horizontal axis.                                                           * Next, we need to determine the East-West position of the Monkey Frame:   It seems that the lower line of the triangle pointing west passes through an inside corner of the Monkey Star. That point is marked by a small yellow circle in the diagram above. So, we try this idea. See the reconstructed Monkey Frame below, where the inscribed triangle is exactly 36 degrees at the tip.

 The Monkey Frame turns out slightly higher, and slightly narrower. We can just see  daylight between the Foot-square's base and the lowest point of the foot. The Monkey Frame fits especially well on the western (right) side, to within a couple centimeters. Everything else in the reconstruction below, like the Foot-square's width, the axes, and the Arms-Square, turns out very exact. Note, how the straight horizontal line of the right forearm is completely blotted out by the Frame's horizontal axis. The same line on the upper arm is similarly blotted out in its straight part by one side of the Arms Square   Diagram below: Another view of how well the geometrical template fits over the monkey figure. Note, how the Big-X lines almost disappear without trace under the star lines.

Meanwhile, competition is doing reconstructions of Nazca figures, as well:
http://www.onagocag.com/nazca.html
The reconstructor, Joe Nickell, chose primitive methods to emulate the ancient Nazcans. He does not think Nazcans could measure angles!  "... there appears to be no evidence that the Nazcas had such a capability" he wrote.

 Jiri Mruzek If you'd like to contact me, or weigh in with an opinion,  I am at Yahoo.com. Just use my name without the space on the left of Yahoo .

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